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Steel Mini Mill. A short introduction

Steel Making Process

Steel is an iron alloy that has specific additives that give it increased strength, resistant to corrosion and other properties (depending on the metals added in it).

Steel gives a better life and more durability and has replaced nearly all kinds of iron works. An ancient art, steel manufacturing goes back to ancient Rome, China and even India.

Steel production, however, was done on a limited basis as the process of refining iron ore and the tight quality control required was difficult.

This changed with the Bessemer process, where concentrated oxygen (99% purity) replaced normal air. Since air is nearly 78% nitrogen and is chemically neutral in the process, it would take a lot of time and effort to refine the ore.

Introduction of pure oxygen through the Bessemer process largely increased the efficiency and reduced the time required, making steel a commercial viability. Overtime, other processes have been introduced, which are much more efficient.

Steel Mini Mill & Electric Arc Furnace

Once a secondary process, minimills mostly consists of recycling scrap metal to create steel. Modern steel making industry has changed this, with many industries using it exclusively.

The most common method of steel making in minimills is using and Electric Arc Furnace (EAF). EAFs consist of a large vat known as the furnace, which is lined with corrosion resistant chemicals.

Scrap iron placed inside the furnace in a layered fashion (bottom layer of small pieces, middle of large and then the top of smaller scrap pieces).

How Graphite Electrodes are used

Three thick graphite rods are lowered into the furnace and are electrically charged. When the graphite cores touch the metal, they create an electric arc which heats the scrap.

As the top scrap melts, the graphite rods are lowered and the electric potential increased. After a certain depth, the rods are slightly raised, allowing the liquid metal to pool around it and conduct the heat and electricity more efficiently.

The process is highly controlled and to decrease the time for smelting, the furnace can be with heated through a gas/fuel fire or even charged with pre melted material from the last batch.

Once the scrap is melted and impurities float on top, the furnace is tilted and tapped, allowing for the metal to flow down into a ladle furnace, where further chemicals can be added according to customer requirements.

Since the electric arc furnace is a batch process that can be started up or shut down with ease, it has become a very popular choice as it allows steel manufacturers to follow the market demand and cut down on production without incurring process losses.

Sources

https://books.google.de/books?id=FAud8CE5stsC&pg=PA361&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false

https://books.google.de/books?id=FAud8CE5stsC&pg=PA361&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://geo.msu.edu/extra/geogmich/minmills.html#:~:text=In%20a%20mini%2Dmills%2C%20electricity,melt%20(primarily)%20scrap%20steel.&text=Minimills%20make%20steel%20from%20scrap,into%20the%20semi%2Dfinished%20forms.

https://www.britannica.com/technology/steel/Electric-arc-steelmaking

http://www.cim.mcgill.ca/ (link below)

Click to access TM18-4_as_published.pdf

 

 

 

 

Primary Steelmaking for Beginners

Steelmaking history

Steelmaking has existed for nearly a thousand years, with modern techniques introduced in the 19th century. The process of manufacturing steel involves removal of impurities such as sulfur and silicon, with introduction of chromium and nickel to produce different grades of steel.

The history of steel making is very old, with it being found in ancient China, India, Iran and even Rome. Before the invention of the Bessemer process in 1850s, steel was only produced in small quantities, suitable for demands of small cities and states. The industrial revolution fueled the need of large scale production, with the Bessemer the only method of making steel in such large volumes.

Primary steel making either involves the use of pig iron or converted into steel, or the use of electric arc furnaces to melt steel scrap and recycle the material.

Oxygen Steelmaking

For using pig iron, the basic oxygen steelmaking method is used. This involves blowing oxygen in a carbon heavy melted iron. The oxygen is blown inside the furnace using a hollow pipe called the lance. The lance is liquid cooled to prevent its melting and its mouth is placed a few feet above the surface of the molten iron. The pressurized oxygen reacts with the carbon. The reaction ignites the carbon and an exothermic reaction raises the temperature to around 1,600 Celsius. Burnt lime or dolomite is introduced, which reacts with other impurities such as silicon and forms a layer on the top of the molten liquid, called slag.

After the purification is complete, the vessel is tilted and the molten iron is poured into another ladle furnace, where other metals and chemicals are added (nickel, chromium etc.) and mixed to produce the exact grade of steel required.

Electric Arc Furnace

Electric arc furnaces are usually used for melting scrap iron and steel. The process involves the use of a lined vessel that is fed with scrap and a three graphite rods are lowered, touching the surface. A high voltage electrical current is passed, which creates arcs and produce heat, melting the steel. To assist the process, some pre melted steel may also be added prior to the arcing and sometimes even gas burners are used to bring the temperature up to speed.

As in all steel making, after the melting is complete, the vessel is tilted to remove the liquefied steel, ensuring that the impurities that are floating on top stay behind to be removed later.

Sources

https://books.google.de/books?id=FAud8CE5stsC&pg=PA361&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false

https://books.google.de/books?id=FAud8CE5stsC&pg=PA361&redir_esc=y

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steelmaking#cite_note-3

https://www.britannica.com/technology/steel/Electric-arc-steelmaking

 

 

 

 

Electric Arc Furnace for Beginners

Long History of Electric Arc Furnace Steel Making

Electric Arc Furnaces (EAF) have been used since the 19th century to melt iron. Different attempts were made but the first successful electric arc furnace was developed and patented by James Burgess Readman in 1888. The furnace was specifically crafted for the production of phosphorus.

EAFs also played a pivotal role during World War 2, used primarily of the production of different steel alloys. After the war, the adoption of a mini mill concept integrated with EAFs had helped many European war ravaged countries to start production of electric steel.

Melting Metal with Graphite Electrodes

EAFs are basically a huge electrical circuit that produces heat to melt metal. The construction consists of heat and corrosive resistant vessel with a lid that has three graphite electrodes.

The vessel is “charged” with scrap, light metal pieces sandwiching heavy pieces. The electrodes are lowered and when they touch the metal, low electric voltage is passed. The arc is struck and the graphite electrodes press down, going into the scrap and the electrical energy creating enormous amounts of heat to melt the scrap metal.

As the electrodes bore further into the metal, the electrical voltage is increased since the arcs formed will not be able to touch the sides of the vessel and damaging it. The electrodes are then raised back slightly, allowing a space in which the molten metal can pool up easily.

Advantages of Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking

Once the impurities that float on the top are removed, the vessel is tilted to pour out the purified liquid metal into pre heated ladles to be cooled off.

EAFs offer advantages over other methods as steel can be made from 100% scrap. The overall energy requirements from making steel from ores is minimal. Another advantage is that unlike ore production of steel, EAFs can be rapidly started or shut down, allowing for batch operations. There is not much wear and tear involved, with usually the graphite electrodes being worn away. The electrodes are manufactured in a modular way where more pieces of electrodes are added as the old ones erode.

 

Sources for Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking 

United States Patent and Trademark office: %252Fnetahtml%252FPTO%252Fpatimg.htm

https://www.britannica.com/technology/steel/Electric-arc-steelmaking

Modeling and Control of an Electric Arc Furnace, Benoit Boulet, Gino Lalli and Mark Ajersch, Centre for Intelligent Machines, McGill University, 3480 University Street, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3A 2A

Click to access TM18-4_as_published.pdf

http://www.industrialmetalcastings.com/foundries_electric_arc_furnace.html#:~:text=Advantages%3A%20Electric%20arc%20furnaces%20are,required%20to%20produce%20the%20steel.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arc_welding

 

All-weather solar cells: everything is possible

Never before have the topics of climate protection and renewable energies attracted as much media attention as these days. The rethinking in society begins and drives the energy transition and the development of progressive innovations.

Until now, Chinese scientists have developed solar cells that take advantage of the sun and water to a certain extent, and which generate energy not only from solar power as before, but also from raindrops – and that even at night.

Continue reading All-weather solar cells: everything is possible